Shiru no Bu (汁の部)
Shiru refers to a particular type of Japanese soup-style dish that is often an integral part of any Japanese meal. The basic unit of most honzen style feasts was “ichijū sansai” (一汁三菜), or “one soup, three side dishes.” A broth usually refers to a thick, cloudy soup, with miso shiru being the typical variety found today, and it can be contrasted with suimono (Chapter 14), which is a clear broth, that can sometimes be used in place of a shiru. Broths and other soups are usually “drunk” (飲む) rather than “eaten” (食べる), straight from the bowl, though larger items can be taken up with chopsticks.
The formulation for most broths appears to be a liquid broth base with a single main ingredient, the “uwaoki” (meat, fish, or vegetables put on top of the chief ingredient, usually floating on top), “tsuma” (secondary ingredients, usually vegetables or seaweed), and suikuchi (spices or pepper used to flavor the broth). In modern Japanese cuisine, it is typical to only have a smattering of the solid ingredients, and only one or two uwaoki, in each serving. It is also common to cook the broth and main ingredients, season in the pot, then add the tsuma to each dish individually, pour in the broth, then add the uwaoki, to ensure that everything is properly arranged.
1. Tai no kaki iri 鯛のかきいり ([Meaning unclear, but possibly:] Sea Bream and Oysters)
Put in salt, and then put aside a good amount. Put the fish in a heated pot. Add aged sake to soak the fish and cook. When there is no more alcohol, add sanban shiromizu, [water from the third washing of rice] and salt as appropriate.
2. Tai Kōrai-ni 鯛かうらいに (Korean-style Simmered Sea Bream)
Sprinkle a little salt in a pot, and then put the tai in as-is. Add shiromizu [water from washing rice] to aged sake. Gradually simmer the fish above and put it in. Boil until the alcohol has evaporated and pour in the gruel from cooked rice, then add drops of tamari, seasoning to taste. You can add any mushrooms, spring onions, or other such things. There are other preparations from this. At this time, you should fillet and cut the fish and put it in.
3. Tai fukutō modoki 鯛のふくとうもどき (Sea Bream as Pufferfish)
In preparation, pour dobu into nakamiso. Put the tai in and simmer. Salt to taste and serve. Alternatively, if it is rich, pour in a lot of dobu. Also it is good to toss in pieces of dried fugu skin. It is good to cook the dried fugu and skin it.
4. Suzuki no shiru 鱸の汁 (Japanese Sea Perch Broth)
A suimono of konbu dashi is good. Konbu and ogo [type of seaweed] can also be put in as uwaoki. Then add milt (kumowata). It is also prepared with a kasu-miso [miso with sake lees].
5. Koi no wi iri jiru 鯉の胆煎り汁 (Roasted Carp Stomach Broth)
First, take the stomach [of the koi], then tenderize well the stomach and small intestine, and put them in a pot. Simmer to a mottled yellow-brown, and then take out the remnants. Rinse out the pot with sake or dashi, and afterwards add dashi to the pot and simmer. Fillet the koi in three pieces. Cut it with the scales and add them. In summer, it is bad to add the scales. There are oral traditions. Seasoning with salt is very important. Alternatively, you can scrub the stomach and store it in sake for later. One can also add bitter seasonings to taste and serve. There are old traditions. In the same way as koi miso shiru, crucian carp may be used.
6. Funa no shiru 鮒の汁 (Crucian Carp Broth)
Use a miso above the grade of nakamiso, [middle-grade miso] and it is good to add dashi. Wrap the carp (funa) in wakame or kajime and simmer it. When the umami flavor is light, add ground katsuo. However you do it, it is good to bring the miso to the start of a boil, like dashi. Boil it well and pour in salted sake. Sanshō powder is used as a suikuchi.
7. Zako jiru 雑喉汁 (Broth of Various Fish)
Although it is a mix of small crucian carp and shrimp, the seasonings are the same as above. As tsuma you can prepare and put in gobō, daikon, bamboo shoots, or anything else. sakeshio and suikuchi are the same.
8. Tara jiru 鱈汁 (Cod Broth)
It is good to start with a suimono of konbu-dashi. That is to say, pieces of konbu make good uwaoki. Also put in ogo and katanori. It is good to add dashi. Alternatively, pinch some hamaguri clams and put it in. There are also examples where egg is added. In the same way, dried cod is also good in broth.
9. Kujira jiru 鯨汁 (Whale Broth)
Pour a few drops of tamari in a suimono. You can also prepare miso shiru. “Gobō”, daikon, mustard green stems, etc. are good as tsuma. Next prepare bamboo shoots and myōga. There is also a preparation of suddenly pouring boiling water over the whale meat. Alternatively, it is also good to suddenly simmer the whale. The color starts off red and white. After it is simmered, it is also good. You will know when it is right.
10. Fukutō jiru ふくとう汁 (Pufferfish Broth)
Remove the skin. Throw away the entrails and completely take out the kakushi-gimo from the head. Wash well until all of the blood is gone, then cut it and put aside in dobu. You can also put it in clear sake. Then, for the base, use a miso slightly thinner than nakamiso, [middle-grade miso] and when it has come to a boil, put in the fukutō. Bring it back to a simmer and pour in dobu. Season with salt to taste. For suikuchi, use garlic and aubergine.
11. Kochi 鯒 (Flathead)
Add such things as mouo in the manner of fukutō modoki. Skin them and throw the skin away. It is good to put in the skin of dried fugu. Serve it just like fugu.
12. Ankō no shiru 鮟鱇の汁 (Monkfish Broth)
Skin and fillet the ankō, then you can put both the meat and the skin into simmering water. When it has turned white, cool it down with water. After that, pour some sake on and put aside. When miso shiru has been brought to a standing simmer, add the fish and pour in dobu. Season with salt to taste and serve. Alternatively, for suimono, just add a few drops of tamari in plain dashi stock. At this time, you can prepare some uwaoki and put them in.
13. Kodatami こだゝみ
Prepare in ninuki. Warm the broth, and before serving it, put in such things as sea cucumber, kamaboko—crumbled—and aonori. Match to taste and serve. You can also grate yamaimo into it. Long ago you wouldn't add yamaimo.
14. Harara jiru はらゝ汁 (Broth of Fish Eggs)
It is good to slice, etc. salmon eggs, boney flesh, and head bones, and put them in. Prepare via nakamiso [middle-grade miso]. Put in dashi, and when you put in such things as oysters the seasoning with miso is an oral tradition.
15. Dojō jiru 鰌汁 (Loach Broth)
Add dashi to nakamiso and simmer well. It is good to pour in dobu. For tsuma there is gobō, daikon, and various others. Boiling miso too long will ruin its flavor. If that happens, it is good to pour in new miso and serve. In either case, you should darken the miso and simmer long. You can then put in whatever you want. Oral traditions. Suikuchi is sanshō powder and leaves.
16. Shaka jiru しやか汁 (Shakyamuni Broth)
Throw out the head and entrails of blue sardines and wash them. For tsuma, put in daikon and myōga. It is good to prepare it in just plain dashi.
17. Suiri jiru すいり汁
Darken the miso and add the stalk of young satoimo. When it is well simmered, cut up the head of pickled crucian carp, put it in, and serve.
18. Tsuru no shiru 鶴の汁 (Crane Broth)
Add the bones [of the crane] to broth and decoct. Prepare with sashi-miso. The seasoning of the sashi are important. For tsuma, something seasonal is good. It is good to put in any number of mushrooms. Whenever you make it, put aside the sinew. For suikuchi: wasabi and yuzu. Alternatively, from the start you can even prepare in nakamiso [middle-grade miso]. You can even use a suimono.
19. Hakuchō no shiru 白鳥の汁 (Swan broth)
Prepare in nakamiso. Alternatively, use a suimono and, for tsuma, prepare and add seasonal products.
20. Kawa iri かわいり (Roasted skin)
Wild goose or duck. Roast the skin and put in dashi. Decoct the bones. Pour in a little namadare and put in the meat. Season with salt to taste and serve. For this, too, the tsuma are seasonal. Generally, mushrooms are always good in a broth of fowl. For suikuchi: wasabi and yuzu.
21. Aogachi あをがち
Tenderize pheasant entrails. Put in a little miso. Put it in a pot and roast until it is browned. Clean out the pot and pour in dashi. Put in fowl that has been prepared by boiling. Season to taste with salt and serve. Seasonings for roasting are important. This is a dish for the snow and frost of the first month.
22. Yamakage 山かけ (Mountain Shadow)
Add namadare to dashi. Put in pheasant and prepare. For tsuma, put in yamaimo, nori, aomugi, or whatever you have on hand. It is also good without adding anything.
23. Hishio iri ひしほいり (Roasted Hishio)
Add usumiso [thin miso] to dashi. Put in pheasant and prepare. Put in things such as yamaimo and nori.
24. Nanban ryōri 南蛮料理 (Southern Barbarian Food)
Pluck the chicken. Cut and wash the head, feet, and tail. Put it in a nabe pot [large, lidded, pot, often ceramic]. Cut a daikon in large pieces and put it in. Put a little water on top. Simmer just until the daikon is soft. Then, take out the meat and tear it into small pieces. Add a drop of tamari into the base broth. Alternatively, simmer the daikon, and when it matches your taste, put in the fowl and sakeshio. For suikuchi: garlic and various others. Also use usumiso [thin miso]. For tsuma put in things such as hiratake mushrooms and nebuka.
25. Tanuki jiru 狸汁 (Tanuki Broth)
Skin a tanuki. You can also cook and skin a Japanese badger (mitanuki). Prepare in miso shiru. Tsuma are daikon, gobō, and various others. For suikuchi: garlic, dashi, and sakeshio.
26. Shika jiru 鹿汁 (Venison Broth)
Add dashi to usumiso [thin miso]. Put in various tsuma and prepare. Suikuchi: Garlic and koshō pepper.
27. Hiya jiru 冷汁 (Cold Broth)
Prepare a ninuki of anything. It is good to put in such things as mozuko, amanori, noronori, and fuji. You can also add such things as chestnuts, ginger, myōga, kamaboko, and chives.
28. Atsume jiru あつめ汁 (Gathered Broth)
It is good to add dashi to nakamiso. Alternatively use a suimono. It is good to put in such things as daikon, gobō, imo, tōfu, bamboo shoots, skewered abalone, dried fugu, iriko, and tsumi’ire. There are various others.
29. Hōhan no shiru 芳飯の汁 (Fragrant Rice Broth)
Ninuki is good. Kamaboko, chestnuts, ginger, grated daikon, egg, grilled fu [wheat gluten], mixed greens, fried konbu, myōga, hanagatsuo, and nori. Anything that is sliced should be sliced thin. There are various preparations you can put in for times of purification.
30. Shumisen しゆみせん (Mt. Sumeru)
It is said to be made of thinly cut mustard greens and tōfu. Add dashi to miso shiru.
31. Bakuchi jiru ばくちじる (Gambler Broth)
A broth where tōfu is cut into dice-sized cubes. The broth is the same.
32. Wari na わり菜 (Cut Mustard Greens)
Cut it together with turnip. It is cut in one stroke. Add dashi to nakamiso [middle-grade miso].
33. Uemongorō 右衛門五郎 (Uemongorō's Broth)
Cut mustard greens both long and short. Also put in plain katsuo. It is said to be a dish where you have put in nukamiso.
34. Yanagi ni mari 柳に鞠 (Ball in the Willows)
You can add satoimo to tsumami na.
35. Hoshi na jiru 干菜汁 (Dried Mustard Greens Broth)
Add dashi to nakamiso [middle-grade miso]. Tenderize such things as kuromame, hamaguri, and small birds and put them in. It is also good to add satoimo.
36. Ninjin jiru 人参汁 (Ginseng Broth)
Cut daikon into large pieces. Add slightly salted tai [sea bream]. Add dashi to miso shiru. Simmer well.
37. Oroshi jiru おろし汁 (Grated Daikon Broth)
Grate daikon. Put in such things as oysters and clams. Add dashi to nakamiso [middle-grade miso] to prepare.
38. Tororo jiru とろゝ汁 (Grated Taro Broth)
Ninuki is good. It is good to grate yamaimo and aonori [green nori seaweed] thinly. It is good to put in approximately as much nori as is good. It is bad to warm it too much. Suikuchi is koshō powder.
39. Nattō jiru 納豆汁 (Fermented Soybean Broth)
It is good to darken miso and add dashi. It is good to cut stalks and tōfu thinly. It is good to tenderize small birds and add them. Wash the stalks well and add when it is time to serve. It is good to knead well and thin the nattō out with dashi. Suikuchi are karashi, yuzu, and garlic.
40. Yomogi jiru 蓬汁 (Mugwort Broth)
Add dashi to miso. Roughly cut the yomogi. Put in a little salt and wash vigorously to rub it in. Alternatively, it is also good to scald it. Dice such things as tōfu put them in. It is good in the first, second, and third months.
41. Hakobe jiru はこべじる (Chickweed Broth)
Cut hakobe and wash vigorously. Add in such things as three month old daikon. This is also prepared in miso.
42. Karage jiru からげ汁 (Bundle Broth)
Split aubergine (nasubi) in two and hollow out the middle slightly. Grind such things as green sanshō pepper and poppy seeds. Also put in walnuts and blend. Wrap it in shiso leaves. Use konbu as a string to tie it well and put it in. Add dashi to miso shiru, simmer well, and when it is time to serve mix to taste. It is good to dissolve kuzu, put it in and serve.
43. Jinfu jiru じんふ汁
Split aubergine (nasubi) in two. Alternatively, chop it thinly, lengthwise. For this, too, darken the miso and add dashi. For suikuchi grind up poppy seeds and green sanshō and put it in.
44. Kanze jiru 観世汁 (Kanze's Broth)
Cut tōfu thin. Prepare in nakamiso [middle-grade miso]. It is also good to top this with azuki beans.
45. Nebuka jiru ねぶか汁 (Onion Broth)
Darken miso and add dashi. It is good to put in slightly salted tai [sea bream]. Also prepared with suimono.
46. Koi no Kanze jiru 鯉の観世汁 (Kanze's Broth with Carp)
Fillet koi and cut it into small pieces. Fry tōfu, cut it, and put it in. In nakamiso [middle-grade miso] is good. It is good to top it with poppy seeds and peppered azuki beans and serve.
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